Transgenic Research 31, 413–430 (2022)
ABSTRACT: Laboratory animal research involving mice, requires consideration of many factors to be controlled. Genetic quality is one factor that is often overlooked but is essential for the generation of reproducible experimental results. Whether experimental research involves inbred mice, spontaneous mutant, or genetically modified strains, exercising genetic quality through careful breeding, good recordkeeping, and prudent quality control steps such as validation of the presence of mutations and verification of the genetic background, will help ensure that experimental results are accurate and that reference controls are representative for the particular experiment. In this review paper, we will discuss various techniques used for the generation of genetically altered mice, and the different aspects to be considered regarding genetic quality, including inbred strains and substrains used, quality check controls during and after genetic manipulation and breeding. We also provide examples for when to use the different techniques and considerations on genetic quality checks. Further, we emphasize on the importance of establishing an in-house genetic quality program.